Categories
astronomy Cosmology Physics

The distances to quasars

Mark 205
Figure 1: False colour image of Markarian 205, a peculiar galaxy imaged in X-rays, shown with several quasars enveloped within its hydrogen gas envelope. Credit: H. Arp, “Seeing Red”, Apeiron.

What can we say about the distances of quasars? This is an important question. According to standard big bang cosmology, due to cosmological expansion of the Universe, the very high redshifts of quasars place them at very great distances. If however even one example could be shown that contradicts the standard “greater the redshift the greater the distance” rule then it would undermine the fundamental foundation of the Standard Model of big bang cosmology. It follows that most of the very high redshift objects in the cosmos may not be so distant. And that would radically change our interpretation of the alleged big bang universe.

One such example that contradicts the Standard Model is shown in Fig. 1. The late Halton Arp spent his 60-year research career looking at peculiar galaxies, which he believed contradicted the standard big bang assumptions. Markarian 205 is such a peculiar galaxy within which are seen three quasars. Markarian 205 has a redshift of z = 0.07 but the quasars z = 1.26, 0.63 and 0.46. According to the Standard Model the high redshift quasars should be many billions of light-years behind Markarian 205, but they are clearly seen enveloped in the X-ray emitting hydrogen gas around the galaxy (as indicated by the white arrows).

Lyman-α forest

Arp’s hypothesis, that quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs1) have a very large intrinsic component to their redshifts, which is unrelated to their cosmic distance from Earth, is strongly rejected by the Standard Model (big bang) community. In relation to this question I received the following from a reader of my website.2

It is claimed, that the many lines of the Lyman alpha forest in the spectrum of most quasars prove that they are very far away. Also, it is claimed that increasing Lyman alpha forest lines is connected with increased magnitude of redshift, so supporting large distances. Is that observational true?

Categories
Bible prophecy Book of Revelation Roman Catholic Church the Bible The Papacy the Reformation

Revelation 11

In the last chapter we saw the revelation deal with the open book, which symbolised the Bible that God thrust upon the nations in their own native languages after the Reformation. The Roman Catholic Church was opposed to its circulation, and many persons were burned for the only crime of possessing a Bible. With that book John the Apostle was commanded to preach the true gospel. That was representative of the missions to spread the gospel to the world. Events continue on from there. Chapter 11 events occur under the sixth trumpet up to verse 15 when the seventh angel sounds his trumpet and the Lord returns to claim His kingdom.

This chapter opens with the Apostle John being given a reed to measure with (v.1). It is a divine measure, not by man’s standards but by God’s. There is a divine standard for measurement, given to the Apostles by Christ, and that is the New Testament of Jesus Christ.

bene0

The revelations always apply to peoples and nations not buildings and things. In verse 1 “…measure the temple of God, and the altar and them that worship therein” symbolises the true Church, the true faithful believers. They are measured against the Word of God, but the false church measures itself by its false pagan traditions, decisions of the Popes and decrees of councils.

Thus “the court … outside the temple” which is “given to the Gentiles” (v.2) symbolises the false church, the false institutionalised Latin Roman church, of religionists, which persecutes  “tread under foot” the true Church for “forty and two months” or 1260 days. The period of time many have suggested is calculated by a day symbolising a year. Isaac Newton wrote that these ‘days’ are actually prophetic years. Therefore the Roman church persecutes the true believers for 1260 years, though I believe that this could be symbolic of a longer period of time than that.

Categories
Bible prophecy Book of Revelation Church History Greek New Testament the Reformation

Revelation 10

Another angel is seen coming down from heaven (v.1) and he had in his hand a little book (v.2).

mighty-angel

Who is this angel? (v.1) Sometimes in Scripture the Lord is represented by an angel (Exodus 3:2-6,13-15). Here he is called “another mighty angel” which may imply he is different from the seven trumpet angels. He has a rainbow was on His head. Where have we seen a rainbow before? In Revelation 4:1-3 “… there was a rainbow round about the throne, …”

His face was like “the sun” (v.1). In Matthew 17:2 we read,

And was transfigured before them: and His face did shine as the sun, and His raiment [clothing] was white as the light.

Also 2 Corinthians 4:6 and Revelation 1:14.

His feet were “as pillars of fire”. In Revelation 1:15 “… His feet like to fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace“. This strongly indicates it is the Lord Jesus Christ here. Also read Habakkuk 3:3-6:

3 God came from Teman [תֵּימָן, the south], and the Holy One from mount Paran. Selah. His glory covered the heavens, and the earth was full of His praise. 4 And His brightness was as the light; He had horns [קֶרֶן qeren, as rays of light] coming out of his hand: and there was the hiding of His power. 5 Before Him went the pestilence, and burning coals went forth at His feet. 6 He stood, and measured the earth: He beheld, and drove asunder the nations; and the everlasting mountains were scattered, the perpetual hills did bow [in worship]: His ways are everlasting.

This ‘little book’ in His hand (v.2) symbolises the Bible. It is described as an open book, possibly meaning that the prophecy was still being written in that book, the prophecies that are revealed in this final book of the Bible.

Categories
astronomy Cosmology

The earth is not flat and hangs upon nothing!

What do we understand when we read Job 26:7?

He stretches out the north over the empty place [תּוֹהוּ tohuw, nothing], and hangs the earth upon nothing. (KJVER)

We are told two things. One is that the Lord stretched the north over an empty place and the second is that He hung the earth upon nothing.

37456337.EarthBig
Earth suspended in space, a picture taken from space. Credit: NASA.

From astronomy we know that the planet is hung on nothing. It is freely orbiting around the sun. In the gravitational field of the sun it is actually falling towards the sun but because of its speed it moves in a stable orbit. But nothing holds it up, because there is no up or down in space.

The direction we give to the north or south are convenient terms, but north is not any more important than south. What is truly amazing though is the fact that the Scriptures have such a statement, when more than 3,000 years ago, around the time the book of Job was written, the ‘science’ of the day (actually myths in Hindu culture) taught the earth was held on the back of four giant male elephants who stood on the back of a giant female turtle. That is probably where they get their elephant god from. And then there is in the ancient Greek mythology, Atlas, a giant Titan god, who held the earth on his back. But the Bible does not describe a fanciful myth but describes what we know to be true.

Categories
Belief in God salvation testimony Witnessing

Sunny tells her story

About a year ago in a classroom at her university in China was the first time Sunny heard about Jesus Christ. Listen to her inspiring testimony. Sunny describes the circumstances of her salvation. She explains what the Lord Jesus Christ did for her when He chose her in that classroom.

You too can know Jesus Christ. No Jesus no life! Know Jesus know life!

For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved. (Romans 10:13)

Related Video and Reading

Categories
Belief in God Creation/evolution Decay of society History Meaning of life

Three books worth taking the time to read

Over the past two months I have read a few excellent books, which I recommend to you. Of the three, my top choice read is Jerry 10-2-601_8Bergman’s book “Hitler and  the Nazi Darwinian Worldview” (Joshua Press)

How the Nazi eugenic crusade for a superior race caused the greatest Holocaust in world history.

This book takes a fresh look at Germany’s most influential Nazi leaders, examining their backgrounds, education and convictions. It provides compelling evidence that the rising influence of Darwinism, eugenics and race theory in early twentieth-century society set the foundation for the Nazi pursuit of engineering a German “master race”—and exterminating European Jews, Gypsies, Blacks, most Slavs and the Christian religion in the ensuing madness of the Holocaust of World War II.

The effect of social Darwinism, eugenics and anti-Semitism, and their relative acceptance in the scientific and medical communities of Germany and many other countries worldwide, opened the door to mass murder, medical experimentation and military conquest. This title examines the roots of Nazi ideology and unmasks the Darwinian “survival of the fittest” theory behind it.

A review is found here

For a long time there has been speculation about Adolf Hitler’s alleged Jewish ancestry. On page 53 Bergman writes in regards to this:

Genetic research indicates the possibility that Hitler had Jewish background, which makes his inferiority concerns somewhat ironic. … Geneticists identified groups of genes called haplogroups that define populations. Hitler’s dominant haplogroup, E1b1b, is relatively rare in Western Europe, but between 50 to 80 per cent of North Africans share Hitler’s dominant group, which is especially prevalent among in (sic) the Berber tribes of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Somalia. Hitler’s second most dominant haplogroup is the most common in Ashkenazi Jews.  “The findings are fascinating if you look at them in terms of the Nazi worldview, which ascribed such an extreme priority to notions of blood and race. This pure type of ‘superman’ and the [Nazi] breeding programs to perfect ‘purity’ were sheer fabrications.” (The author cites Haaretz Service, “DNA test reveal Hitler’s Jewish and African roots,” Jewish World (August 4, 2010): 1.) (emphasis added)

Categories
astronomy Creation/evolution Physics

Giant molecular clouds

A look at uniformitarian assumptions in star formation

41P1BB52W1L._SX372_BO1,204,203,200_In almost any standard university astrophysics text you will find a chapter on star formation. Stars are alleged to have formed, and still do form, from giant clouds of molecular hydrogen gas. That is the standard party line. Thus it follows from standard big bang thinking that they were not created by the Creator on the fourth day of Creation week as outlined in Genesis 1, but naturally condensed out of gas (and dust) under the force of gravity only.

Nowadays you can read about dark matter as the seeds of the formation of galaxies and hence stars.1  But dark matter is still just a hypothetical substance. So how does star formation stack up without invoking such stuff? What physics can explain the alleged collapse of giant molecular clouds (GMC) to form stars? What were/are the typical explanations for star formation when dark matter was/is not assumed? And what unprovable uniformitarian assumptions are required?

To discover the answer to these questions I went to (and hence I quote extensively from) a standard 1996 first year university astrophysics text “An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics” (1st Edition) by Carroll & Ostlie,hereafter referred to as Carroll & Ostlie. I also looked at what the authors might have added in terms of overcoming some of the problems for star formation, a decade later, in their 2nd Edition, and found no substantive improvements.3,4

Carroll & Ostlie write:

“In some sense the evolution of a star is cyclic. It is born out of gas and dust that exists between the stars, known as the interstellar medium (ISM).”5 (emphasis in original)

Categories
Bible prophecy Book of Revelation Islam

Revelation 9

Continuing from chapter 8 we see two more of the 7 trumpets sounded which bring them hordes of Saracen (Arab) and Turkish armies to invade the Eastern part of the old Roman Empire, called the Byzantine Empire, as well as north Africa and the middle Eastern areas. The historical interpretation is continued and covers the period of history of 476 AD (the fall of Western Rome) to 1453 AD (the fall of Constantinople in the Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine Empire). This chapter divides in to 3 segments, v. 1-12, v. 13-19 and v. 20,21.

Credit: Bigdaddy1204 Wikipedia CC BY-SA 3.0
Byzantine Empire in 1025 AD. Credit: Bigdaddy1204 Wikipedia CC BY-SA 3.0

Fifth trumpet (v.1) – a star fell from heaven, meaning an angel to whom was given the key to the bottomless pit or Hell.

A star fallen from heaven (v.1) symbolises the fall of a prince or a leader, who fell to Earth meaning he has influence in the earthly realm. He was given power to unleash hellish influences on Earth. It sounds much like Satan who was cast out of heaven (Revelation 12:9), and given limited power by God on Earth. Some commentators mark him as Muhammad. Now Muhammad lived from 570 AD to 632 AD. Most of this suggested period, ending in 632 AD, for an invading Saracen (Arabian) army, would predate his life.

From the 3rd century AD, Arabian history becomes more tangible with the rise of the Ḥimyarite, and with the appearance of the Qaḥṭānites in the Levant and the gradual assimilation of the Nabataeans by the Qaḥṭānites in the early centuries, a pattern of expansion exceeded in the explosive Muslim conquests of the 7th century. For this leader to be Muhammad it would have to be that most of the conquests it represents occurred in the period, not leading up to 632 AD, but after 632 AD, for a period of 150 years (v.5,10; 5 months = 150 ‘days’ = 150 years) when Arab Islam assaulted the old Roman world.

The ‘air was darkened by reason of the smoke from the pit’ (v.2) symbolises these hellish influence. A great horde of ‘locusts’ (v.3) symbolising great destroying armies ‘came out of the smoke’ and they we sent to torment (v.4,5) those humans who did not have the salvation of our God, where salvation is symbolised by a seal in their foreheads.

Categories
astronomy Cosmology Creation/evolution Physics

A student’s understanding of the ASC model

A graduate student at my university, contacted me recently about the biblical creationist starlight-travel-time problem.  He said that he had attended a lecture on the recent detection of gravitational waves, where the professor had mentioned that the source of the binary black hole collision event occurred some 1.3 billion years ago. The issue has made him contemplate how that time scale fits with the biblical time scale of an approximately 6000 year old universe.

CMB horizon
Figure 1: Horizon problem: Light from the alleged big bang fireball has not had sufficient time to equalise in temperature over all directions in space yet it is measured to be a uniform 2.73 K degrees in every direction. Credit: Wikipedia.

In response first I pointed out that the standard big bang model also has a light-travel-time problem called the horizon problem. It may be over a different time scale but it is still the same type of problem.

I explained that there were different biblical creationist models, in 5 different categories. I also suggested he view this lecture, which I gave last year on the problem, with lecture notes found here. I have looked at various solutions, and proposed a few myself, which I mention in the lecture, but now I personally prefer the solution outlined here, with details found in the linked articles there.

I asked him, in relation to how he understands the ASC model, if he could write a paragraph, in his own words, describing how it explains the starlight-travel-time problem. This is what he wrote.

Categories
Belief in God salvation testimony

Wonderful Works of God: Sunny’s testimony

On December 13, 2015 Sunny Dong shared her personal salvation testimony at the Church at Moonta (South Australia). This was part of several testimonies at the event entitled “The Wonderful Works of God” (Acts 2:11). Her testimony tells us of the amazing power of God to transform lives. God is not limited by language or geographical boundaries. He works His wonderful works everywhere.

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