Currently the standard model incorporates the hypothetical stuff called ‘dark energy’. That is some sort of anti-gravity type energy that is alleged to have caused the expansion of the universe to start to accelerate back about 5 billion years ago. But ‘dark energy’ is otherwise unknown to modern physics. Really it is a fudge factor in the big bang theory.
Now some cosmologists have suggested ‘dark energy’ may have had another role in the early universe. This occurred after some very brief period of hypothesized cosmic inflation that spread out whatever particles existed in the universe then to make it extremely dilute.
Astrophysicist Paul Sutter in an article on Space.com wrote:[i]
“The researchers found that a brief fluctuation in dark energy could have flooded the early universe with exotic particles like quarks, gluons and leptons that would eventually congeal into the atoms we know and love today.”