This is a video segment, with added text subtitling, taken from the documentary film “The Heavens Declare” Part 2 where in I describe the new physics of how light from the most distant galaxies could have reached Earth in just 24 hours during the Creation by God 6000 years ago. My model is based on Carmeli’s cosmology and where the Universe was rapidly stretched out by the Creator on Day 4 of Creation week when He made the stars and galaxies. This provides a solution to the creationist light-travel-time problem.
Modern astronomy describes a universe that is billions of light-years in extent. If we reasonably assume that a light-year is the distance that light travels in one year at one light-year per year and that the speed of light has been a constant over all time since the creation of the Universe then creationists have a problem, don’t they? Since the Universe was created only a mere 6 thousand years ago how can light travel billions of light-years? This is called a light-travel-time problem.
Despite increasingly compelling arguments from biblical creationists that offer solutions to this problem, still many doubt the Bible’s clear timescale. This is because, they think, it is impossible for light to have reached Earth in only a few thousand years from galaxies that are billions of light-years away. This misconception is often the ultimate stumbling block to a straightforward acceptance of the Bible—even the gospel itself.
This book, Starlight, Time, and the New Physics, provides one such solution and it is summarized below. But before proceeding know this, the most accepted model describing the origin of the universe in the hot big bang also has a light-travel-time problem. This is called the horizon problem. See my blog, Big bang has a light-travel-time problem.
It is often claimed by anti-biblical creationists that believing the literal Creation account as described in the first 11 chapters of Genesis is the same as believing in pseudosciences like alchemy, astrology, and even a flat Earth. The reason they say this is because some galaxies are billions of light-years distant from us in the universe, so how could light travel to Earth in the 6 thousand years available since the Creation? Surely light could only travel 6000 light-years in 6000 years. That is not even outside our galaxy. This is then called a light-travel-time problem. But the most accepted model describing the origin of the universe, the hot big bang inflation model has a light-travel-time problem. It is called the horizon problem.
The horizon problem can be understood best from the illustration (left). First imagine two points on the last scattering surface (LSS) of the big bang fireball that were initially much closer together. We now allegedly see radiation in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) coming from these points on that putative source 13.8 billion years after the universe has expanded by an expansion factor of about 1100. According to the theory, by the time the radiation gets to our vicinity in the universe it has cooled by the same expansion factor, and we measure its temperature in the CMB at almost a uniform temperature of 2.72548±0.00057 K (-270 °C), which is uniform to about 1 part in 100,000. That is, it is at the same temperature for all directions in space. It is extremely uniform. So how is that possible?
The big bang theory describes the origin of the Universe starting some 13.8 billion years ago with a ultra-hot plasma cooling to form hydrogen and helium gas in an expanding universe. From this, a billion years later, stars and then galaxies allegedly started to form. Some of the stars exploded building the heavier elements and dust and then about 5 billion years ago our sun allegedly condensed from a solar nebula of the gas and dust from recycled stars. Then about 4.6 billion years ago and the rest of the planets in the solar system formed from the remnants of that cloud. Eventually the Earth cooled, oceans formed, life started by some unknown mechanism, crawled out of the ocean onto the land, and over the past 3.8 billion years life evolved from single-celled organisms to the complex life today. Man allegedly evolved from some ape-like ancestors over the past 2 million years. But what does the straight-forward account of the Creation in Genesis chapter 1 describe?
The observational evidence1 that the late Halton Arp and others have accumulated, documented and described provides a starkly different story about the location and distribution of galaxies and quasi-galactic objects (including quasars) in the universe from that which is promoted by big-bang cosmologists and the popular press.
Instead of the notion that all matter originated in the initial big bang Arp promoted the idea that new matter formed in a series of little bangs with quasars (or QSOs = quasi-stellar objects) being ejected from the hearts of active galaxies, which in turn eject more quasars which eventually evolve into galaxies over millions of years of cosmic time.
After Edwin Hubble published his astronomical observations of the redshifted light from nearby galaxies in 1929 it has almost universally been taught that the Universe is expanding. Hubble observed in the light from most of those galaxies that the spectral lines were shifted towards the red end of the spectrum as compared to a local laboratory source of the same atomic gas species. See illustration below. From this he interpreted that it was a Doppler effect, where the galaxies were receding from us the observer.
The Doppler effect is what you experience when you hear the pitch of the sound coming from a speeding train rushing past you. Also you might have had experience with ultra-sound imagining–there the Doppler effect is used to see the flow rate of blood in your arteries and veins. Those examples employ sound waves but the Doppler effect is real physics applied to electromagnetic waves in police radar or weather radar.
The question needs to be asked though, is this the same effect seen in the light from galaxies around us? Cosmologists today say, No! They interpret the observations differently. They say it results from the expansion of space–called cosmological expansion. The galaxies are actually not moving (except for local motion within their own clusters). The universe is expanding and over time it appears to us that they are moving away from us. Hubble discovered, and it has been confirmed many times since, that the greater the distance to a galaxy the greater the spectral lines are redshifted. This is called the Hubble Law.
Halton Arp passed away on Saturday morning 28th December 2013 in Munich, Germany. He will be sorely missed by many but not so much by others because of his challenges to the ruling big bang paradigm.
With Geoffrey Burbidge and others, Professor Halton Arp was a thorn in the side of those who held to the standard story line of the big bang. In many papers and several books1 he promoted the idea that quasars are born from the nucleus of active galaxies—parent galaxies.
We might ask, with all the modern technology—including space-borne telescopes like the Hubble Space Telescope and numerous others, and large, earth-based telescopes with adaptive optics and advanced supercomputers for image processing and simulations—hasn’t the evidence now been firmly found to establish the big bang as correct? The following paragraphs (emphases added) from a 2007 article in the prestigious journal Science includes quotes from three well-known cosmologists.1
In the book of Exodus chapter 3 we read about when God called Moses to lead the children of Israel out from under the oppression of the Pharaoh of Egypt. The following is the English translation of the Hebrew text Exodus 3:13,14 (KJB = King James Bible)
13 And Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them?
14 And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.
The argument is this: The universe is extremely large—tens of billions of light-years across. The Bible tells us that made the universe a mere 6000 years ago. How does the light from distant galaxies reach earth then? Surely that size of the universe demands an enormous timescale?
But couldn’t God just have created the light in transit. No, that would be deceptive. It would mean a stream of light carrying false information for billions of years to come.
But surely even you must admit that the simplest and even most logical explanation (if you don’t first presuppose that the biblical account in Genesis is correct) is that the light, from galaxies millions of light-years away, did indeed travel for millions of years to get here?