Creation/evolution God Physics

An Essay: it’s about time

—John Gideon Hartnett and James Chappell

What is time? This seems to be a particularly intractable question!

Also, while space appears quite tangible and easy to visualise, time on the other hand seems an extremely elusive The-Thinker-Auguste-Rodin-Grayscaleconcept.  Some theorists have thereby concluded that time is perhaps merely a human invention and that only space is real.  However, many authors have also concluded1  that all mathematical concepts are freely created and so it is therefore invalid to single out time in this way.

Similarly, some scientists say that while time is not real the laws of physics are perfect and unchanging. This is part of what is referred to as the Newtonian paradigm.  Time becomes merely a parameter to calculate kinematical and dynamical processes. However, how can we say that the laws of physics do not change with time when we do not have a rigorous definition of time?

Sir Isaac Newton said that he was searching for the way God made the Universe, in the laws of physics.

“The True God is a living, intelligent, and powerful being: His duration reaches from eternity to eternity.”2

Cosmology Creation/evolution Physics

Is mathematics intrinsic to the Universe?

That is an important question. Is mathematics a convenient construct — a human invention — that we humans use to describe nature? Or is mathematics more fundamental — intrinsic to the Universe — mirroring the divine ordered creation of a reasonable logical Creator?

Immutable laws

Theoretical physicist Lee Smolin in his bookTime Reborn” argues that what he calls the Newtonian paradigm is a myth. What he labels the Newtonian paradigm is the attempt by theoretical physicists, beginning with Sir Isaac Newton, to describe the Universe with immutable laws, using a mathematical description. Those laws are unchanging in time, as reflected in the idea that Newton understood the laws of nature as the result of Divine creation and hence that they are unchanging in time. Newton wrote:2

And from true lordship it follows that the true God is living, intelligent, and powerful; from the other perfections, that he is supreme, or supremely perfect. He is eternal and infinite, omnipotent and omniscient; that is, he endures from eternity to eternity; and he is present from infinity to infinity; he rules all things, and he knows all things that happen or can happen.

From this standpoint he understood the laws of nature as the special creation of God. These resulted concomitant with the special creation of the Universe itself. The Universe is not the result of blind chance acting on some initial conditions and evolving accordance with those laws.