Categories
climate change Physics

Global atmospheric temperature trends

Since 1979, NOAA satellites have been carrying instruments which measure the natural microwave thermal emissions from oxygen in the atmosphere. The intensity of the signals these microwave radiometers measure at different microwave frequencies is directly proportional to the temperature of different, deep layers of the atmosphere.

The temperatures in the four layers presented here were once calculated using a hodgepodge of code that had been written by different scientists over years. Eventually a new version (6.0) was written by a single scientist resulting in 9000 lines of FORTRAN code. In 2015 Roy W. Spencer et al. of the University of Alabama in Huntsville used this to reanalyse the available raw atmospheric data since 1978. He writes:

Version 6 of the UAH MSU/AMSU global satellite temperature dataset is by far the most extensive revision of the procedures and computer code we have ever produced in over 25 years of global temperature monitoring. The two most significant changes from an end-user perspective are (1) a decrease in the global-average lower tropospheric (LT) temperature trend from +0.140 C/decade to +0.114 C/decade (Dec. 1978 through Mar. 2015); and (2) the geographic distribution of the LT trends, including higher spatial resolution.

Roy W. Spencer et al. 2015
Image excerpted from Roy Spencer’s excellent website on Global Warming
Categories
astronomy Physics Science

The existence of the ISS refutes the flat-earth

It seems that flat-earth believers deny the existence of satellites, which means all global navigation system satellites (GNSS) including the American GPS satellites (at 20,000 km altitude), all geostationary satellites (at 35,000 km altitude) and all low earth orbit TV transmitting satellites (around 300 km altitude). The elephant not in the kitchen but in space is the largest of satellites, the International Space Station (ISS), the largest man-made structure in space. It orbits at an altitude of about 400 km, which is well outside of the atmosphere.

The ISS can be seen from the earth’s surface with the naked eye, when it passes overhead on a 90 minute circumnavigation of the planet, travelling much faster than stars move. It looks like a fast-moving plane only much higher and traveling thousands of kilometers an hour faster. When it comes into view in your area it is best viewed within two hours of sunset or sunrise. Because of the very large solar panels, used to power the spacecraft, sunlight can reflect off those in your direction.

The ISS with solar panels fully deployed. Curvature of the earth is clearly seen.

Here is a live video feed from the ISS. But flat-earthers say that all such video is faked. They say that all space agencies fake everything they show. So you can’t win.

NASA has it own TV showing live feeds from the ISS when available. Below is a YouTube recording of a past live feed.