Astronomers in the late 1800s blamed the anomalous precession of the orbit of the planet Mercury on the existence of ‘dark matter’. In fact, traditionally astronomers have done this when they didn’t quite have the right physics. The latter case was solved with Einstein’s general theory published in 1915. Currently ‘dark’ matter and ‘dark’ energy are claimed to inhabit all areas of the universe. I show that they can be accounted for by the introduction of a new 5D—5 dimensional—cosmology, Cosmological General Relativity, developed by the late Prof. Moshe Carmeli of Ben Gurion University, Israel. The extra dimension is the velocity of the universal expansion of the Universe, as described by the Hubble law. Hence the Hubble law is assumed to be fundamental. The expansion of the Universe itself hinges on this assumption being true.
On the large scale the expanding universe can be described by 4D spacevelocity and analogue to spacetime of Einstein’s special relativity theory. Using this new cosmology on the large scale structure of the universe it is shown that the best solution to Einstein’s field equations is a galactocentric expanding “white hole.” That is, we are observers at the centre of a grand Creation event.
From the data of large galaxy redshift surveys, it is found that galaxies, in redshift space, tend to concentrate on equally spaced shells, whose spherical centre is somewhere near our galaxy. There are two possible interpretations. One is that the cosmos, in the past, has undergone oscillations in its expansion rate. The other is that our galaxy is located somewhere near the centre of a huge super-structure of galaxies and those galaxies are preferentially physically located on shells of about 100 million light-year separation—a real space effect. Preliminary analysis favours the latter, where it has been found that the centre of this structure is about 125 million light-years from Earth.
Certainly observations are consistent with that, though the theory cannot help us distinguish whether the Universe itself is bounded or unbounded or finite. The new cosmology provides confirmation with the high redshift supernova measurements without the need to invoke dark matter. Dark matter, again, was found to be incorrect physics, and ‘dark’ energy is a misnomer, really it is just a property of the vacuum that the correctly chosen metric describes. Both are explained with the correct physics.
All of this leads to a very interesting conclusion for those seeking agreement between the history of the biblical text and the observations in the cosmos. Clearly we see very distant galaxies in the Universe. Without making any additional assumptions about the size of the universe, it is shown that Adam could have seen even the most distant galaxies, 10 billion light-years distant (if he had a large telescope), when he opened his eyes on Day 6 or Creation Week, about 6 thousand years ago.
A straightforward interpretation of the genealogies in Genesis Chapters 5 and 11 has been used by many, past and present, to arrive at a figure for the age of the Universe of about 6 or 7 thousand years. Assuming that the speed of light has been constant through all time, and that the distances in the Universe are essentially correct, how do we see distant objects? This has been the biggest question to face people believing the biblical history since we began to understand the distances involved.
It was hoped that a solution to this question would come out of a new cosmology when one understands that Carmeli’s Cosmological General Relativity works on the large scale in the universe, and that Einstein’s General and Special Relativity theories work on the local scale in the solar system. Space and Time are not absolute concepts, and this a clue to answer. Really the question “How old is the Universe?” should be rephrased with “…by whose clocks.”
Presented at “Reasonable Faith” Tabor College, Adelaide, South Australia, on Thursday the 12th of June 2014.
Update 23 June 2021
I have now abandoned this specific mode based on Carmeli’s cosmology. There are too many inconsistencies and besides we never found a full 5D (space, time and velocity) solution for the whole universe. I have moved on, so should you. See Can we see into the past?
- Can we see into the past?
- Big bang has a light-travel-time problem
- Universe: Expanding or static?
- The Anisotropic Synchrony Convention model as a solution to the creationist starlight-travel-time problem — Part I
- The Anisotropic Synchrony Convention model as a solution to the creationist starlight-travel-time problem — Part II
- Cosmology is Not Science
- Big Bang Fudge Factors
- ‘Cosmology is not even astrophysics’