astronomy Cosmology Creation

Ultramassive galaxy in ‘early universe’ defies naturalistic origins

An artist’s impression of what an ancient star-forming galaxy would look like in visible light. Image credit: NRAO / AUI / NSF / B. Saxton.

February 2020 Sci News reported on this galaxy XMM-2599 discovered about 12 billion light-years away.

Astronomers using the Multi-Object Spectrograph for Infrared Exploration (MOSFIRE) at the W. M. Keck Observatory have discovered an ultramassive galaxy 12 billion light-years away from Earth. The unusual galaxy, named XMM-2599, formed stars at a very high rate and then died; why it suddenly stopped forming stars is unclear.

Of course this is story-telling at its best. Much of science simply isn’t science. And cosmology is definitely not science!

As I have reported many times in the past, the big bang paradigm is a priori accepted as truth and whatever is discovered is fitted into that story-line. In this case it is another of those objects that is simply too big too early in the alleged history of the big bang universe.

“More remarkably, we show that XMM-2599 formed most of its stars in a huge frenzy when the Universe was less than one billion years old, and then became inactive by the time the Universe was only 1.8 billion years old.”

Dr. Forrest and colleagues used spectroscopic observations from the MOSFIRE instrument to make detailed measurements of XMM-2599 and precisely quantify its distance.

Distance is assumed based on the redshift of the galaxy, but that measure is totally determined by the assumptions in the model used.

“In this epoch, very few galaxies have stopped forming stars, and none are as massive as XMM-2599. The mere existence of ultramassive galaxies like XMM-2599 proves quite a challenge to numerical models,” said University of California, Riverside’s Professor Gillian Wilson.

The simple explanation is that the universe did not evolve out of a big bang as they assume. God created the galaxy almost exactly as we see it.

Distance in the universe is not a measure of history – the idea that the greater the redshift the greater the distance may be true for many galaxies but it is not absolute, e.g. quasars. And it definitely is not necessarily a measure of past epochs of time.

God created all the galaxies in the universe during Day 4 of Creation week as described in Genesis 1. The first light from those galaxies all must have reached the Earth the same day. This can be explained with an infinite incoming one-way speed of light.

In this post Can we see into the past? I deal, in a simple explanatory way, with this issue. There I show that the language of the Bible requires the straightforward interpretation that if we were standing on Earth on Day 4 we would have seen the lights of the stars and galaxies when God created them. Even this galaxy at 12 billion light-years distance if we had had a big enough telescope. This is because the language of the Bible requires that the appropriate timing convention used is such that the one-way speed of light towards the observer on earth is infinite. Hence we see the stars in real time; there is no delay.

The interpretation applied to this galaxy XMM-2599 that it has stopped star forming is based on the measurements of certain wavelengths of light in its spectrum. Star forming is alleged to be characterized by spectra of hydrogen gas ionized by powerful radiation from young stars, and radio emission. But this is all model dependent also. I contend those models are flawed and are based on circular reasoning.

Now the concept of the one-way speed of light is related to the conventionality thesis which I have dealt with on this site quite a bit. But also secular scientists have discussed the one-way speed of light and presented their model of what the universe would look like to an earth observer with an anisotropic speed of light. They wrote:

The conclusion is that the presence of an anisotropic speed of light leads to anisotropic time dilation effects, and hence observers in the Milne universe would be presented with an isotropic view of the distant cosmos.

Geraint F. Lewis and Luke A. Barnes, The One-Way Speed of Light and the Milne Universe, Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia (PASA) 38 (2021) e007
doi: 10.1017/pas.2020 preprint

This statement means that we would see the universe as essentially isotropic from our advantage point — it would look like what we see. That is, if we assume the timing convention called the Anisotropic Synchrony Convention (ASC), we would not expect anything unusual.

But don’t forget this involves instantaneous travel of light from the galaxies to earth. We see the universe in real time.

Their modelling did not involve matter (as they assumed the Milne universe) but it has been modelled by others with similar assumptions. See New cosmologies converge on the ASC model. Even atheistic wikipedia admits the validity of the one-way speed of light but lacks any discussion on the conventionality thesis.

Even the atheist biblical anti-creationists admit:

The anisotropic synchrony convention (ASC) is a perfectly acceptable, albeit obscure, sub-branch of special relativity; it results in the same observed universe.

That’s right. It is the same conclusion that Lewis and Barnes came to.

Thus we can conclude that this 12 billion light-year distant galaxy is essentially only 6000 years old as we see it today. It was created essentially as we see it — not much has changed in 6000 years. So the stars did not naturalistically form and then subsequently die. That is just more storytelling.

Comments welcome below.

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By John Gideon Hartnett

Dr John G. Hartnett is an Australian physicist and cosmologist, and a Christian with a biblical creationist worldview. He received a B.Sc. (Hons) and Ph.D. (with distinction) in Physics from The University of Western Australia, W.A., Australia. He was an Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Outstanding Researcher Award (DORA) fellow at the University of Adelaide, with rank of Associate Professor. Now he is retired. He has published more than 200 papers in scientific journals, book chapters and conference proceedings.

4 replies on “Ultramassive galaxy in ‘early universe’ defies naturalistic origins”

In these times of ‘non-science’…your article is a welcome and lovely distraction.
The fact that we see the galaxy pretty much as it was from day 4…strengthens our faith in our Creator but also connects us in a deeper way with Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David and the Messiah.


I see no “If you want to be notified by email each time I add a new post click the “Email” button below and add you email address.” But add me to your mailinglist


Thank you John, This is a great article.
It helps us to understand the timeline of events deeper in the Bible chronology.


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