The last three chapters in the book of Daniel really form one unit. The traditional chapter divisions in part obscure this fact. Here we deal with Daniel chapters 10 and 11 together. (All bold are my emphases added. Square brackets [ ] indicate meanings of words. King James Version Easy-Reading Bible (KJVER) used.)
Daniel 10:1 In the third year of Cyrus king of Persia1 a thing [message] was revealed to Daniel, whose name was called Belteshazzar; and the thing was true, but the time appointed was long: and he understood the thing [message], and had understanding of the vision.
Daniel was mourning for three weeks when God somehow transported him in spirit and gives him his final vision. He finds himself besides the river Tigris, which was called Hiddekel (probably named that after the river in Eden of the same name).
Babylon though was located besides the great Euphrates river.
It appears that either an angel or God Himself in his theophany2 appeared to Daniel to reveal the vision.
Daniel 10:5,6 Then I lifted up my eyes, and looked, and behold a certain man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with fine [pure] gold of Uphaz: 6 His body also was like the beryl [a topaz], and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his feet like in color to polished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude.
The description is very similar to the description of Jesus Christ (at least ‘one like unto the Son of man’) in the book of Revelation:
Revelation 1:13-15 …one like to the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the breasts with a golden girdle. 14 His head and His hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and His eyes were as a flame of fire; 15 And His feet like to fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and His voice as the sound of many waters.
Clearly this was an important prophecy that God wanted to reveal to Daniel even though it was for a future time. He was very humbled by the appearance of the Lord. Daniel said,
Daniel 10:8 … I was left alone, and saw this great vision, and there remained no strength in me: for my comeliness [attractiveness] was turned in me into corruption [deathly pale appearance], and I retained no strength.
Daniel was quite old by this time so the fulfillment of the prophecy would not personally affect him, but God revealed it for the sake of the nation of Israel, God’s people, in the latter days.
Daniel 10:13,14 But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days: but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia. Now I am come to make you understand what shall befall your people in the latter days: for yet the vision is for many days.
Daniel 10:20,21 Then said he, Know you wherefore [why] I come to you? and now will I return to fight with the prince of Persia: and when I am gone forth, lo, the prince of Grecia shall come. 21 But I will show you that which is noted in the scripture of truth: and there is none that holds with me in these things, but Michael your prince.
These verses indicate the spiritual battle that ensued with the ‘prince of Persia’ resisting the Lord revealing the prophecy. Michael the archangel stood with the Lord to fight these evil spirits, the princes of Persia and Grecia (Greece), who rule through their kings.
Daniel 11:1 Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede,3 even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him.
Similar to when God revealed the prophecy to Daniel in chapter 9 the Lord had to assist else these demon princes would have stopped that revelation also.
Daniel 11:2 And now will I show you the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.
Sir Isaac Newton names these three kings in Persia as Cyrus, Cambyses, and Darius Hystaspes, and the fourth as Xerxes.4 The Geneva Bible footnotes (by the Reformer translators) don’t list Cyrus but include Smerdis. John Gill wrote that they were “…Cyrus, who reigned alone after the death of Darius the Mede, his uncle; Cambyses, the son of Cyrus; and Darius Hystaspes. There was another between Cambyses and Darius, called Smerdis the magician, who reigned but seven months, and being an impostor is left out, as he is in Ptolemy’s canon.”
Daniel 11:3,4 And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will. 4 And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity [descendents], nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.
The Geneva Bible footnote on this verse has Alexander the great as the mighty king, who represents the united Grecian kingdom. As described in the Daniel 8 study that kingdom was broken up into 4 main sub-kingdoms, and was not ruled by Alexander’s offspring. Those events occurred in the transition period before next major power arose, the little horn that came out of the he-goat (Daniel 8:9), which was the kingdom that conquered Greece—that is, Rome. Sir Isaac Newton agrees.
In the following all commentary by Isaac Newton is shown in green indented text, excerpted from Ref. 4. Bold are my added emphases.
“Alexander the great having conquered all the Persian Empire, and some part of India, died at Babylon a month before the summer Solstice, [322 B.C.]: and his captains gave the monarchy to his bastard brother Philip Aridæus, a man disturbed in his understanding; and made Perdiccus administrator of the kingdom. Perdiccas with their consent made Meleager commander of the army, Seleucus master of the horse, Craterus treasurer of the kingdom, Antipater governor of Macedon and Greece, Ptolemy governor of Egypt; Antigonus governor of Pamphylia, Lycia, Lycaonia, and Phrygia major; Lysimachus governor of Thrace, and other captains governors of other Provinces; as many as had been so before in the days of Alexander the great. …. Thus the monarchy of the Greeks for want of an heir was broken into several kingdoms; four of which, seated to the four winds of heaven, were very eminent. For Ptolemy reigned over Egypt, Lybia and Ethiopia; Antigonus over Syria and the lesser Asia; Lysimachus over Thrace; and Cassander over Macedon, Greece and Epirus, as above.”
The kings of the south and of the north
Newton describes the historical sequence of battles and wars between the regions after Alexander’s kingdom was divided. He identifies the King of the South as Egypt (Ptolemy). In the following verses from Daniel 11 I have inserted Newton’s descriptors into square brackets (in bold text) and give some of the history he describes.
You can skip all the historical details in you like, as it might be boring for some, but it builds the case that this is fulfilled history. That is the reason I took the time to write this out.
Daniel 11:5-12 And the king of the south [Ptolemy] shall be strong, and one of his princes [Seleucus, one of Alexander’s Princes]; and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion. And in the end of years they [the kings of the South and North] shall join themselves together; for the king’s daughter of the south [Berenice] shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her [Callinicus], and he that fathered her, and he that strengthened her in [those] times [or defended her in the siege of Daphne.] 7 But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate [her brother Euergetes], which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress [or fenced cities] of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail: 8 And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north. 9 So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land. 10 But his sons [Seleucus Ceraunus, and Antiochus Magnus, the sons of Callinicus] shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one [Antiochus Magnus] shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and [again the next year] be stirred up, [marching] even to his fortress [the frontier towns of Egypt]. 11 And the king of the south shall be moved with choler [enraged], and shall come forth [the third year] and fight with him, even with the king of the north: and he [the King of the North] shall set forth a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his hand. 12 And when he has taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; and he shall cast down many ten thousands: but he shall not be strengthened by it.
“About twelve years after the battle between Philopator and Antiochus, Philopator died; and left his kingdom to his young son Ptolemy Epiphanes, a child of five years old. Thereupon Antiochus Magnus confederated with Philip king of Macedon, that they should each invade the dominions of Epiphanes which lay next to them. Hence arose a various war between Antiochus and Epiphanes, each of them seizing Phoenicia and Coelosyria by turns; whereby those countries were much afflicted by both parties.”
“First Antiochus seized them; then one Scopas being sent with the army of Egypt, recovered them from Antiochus: the next year, [197 B.C.], Antiochus fought and routed Scopas near the fountains of Jordan, besieged him in Sidon, took the city, and recovered Syria and Phoenicia from Egypt, the Jews coming over to him voluntarily. But about three years after, preparing for a war against the Romans, he came to Raphia on the borders of Egypt; made peace with Epiphanes, and gave him his daughter Cleopatra: next autumn he passed the Hellespont to invade the cities of Greece under the Roman protection, and took some of them; but was beaten by the Romans the summer following, and forced to return back with his army into Asia. Before the end of the year the fleet of Antiochus was beaten by the fleet of the Romans near Phocæa: and at the same time Epiphanes and Cleopatra sent an embassy to Rome to congratulate the Romans on their success against their father Antiochus, and to exhort them to prosecute the war against him into Asia.”
“The Romans beat Antiochus again at sea near Ephesus, past their army over the Hellespont, and obtain’d a great victory over him by land, took from him all Asia westward of mount Taurus, gave it to the King of Pergamus who assisted them in the war; and imposed a large tribute upon Antiochus. Thus the King of Pergamus, by the power of the Romans, recovered what Antiochus had taken from him; and Antiochus retiring into the remainder of his kingdom, was slain two years after by the Persians, as he was robbing the Temple of Jupiter Belus in Elymais, to raise money for the Romans. All which is thus described by Daniel.“
Daniel 11:13-19 For the king of the north [Antiochus] shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches. 14 And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers of your people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall. 15 So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand. 16 But he that comes against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed. 17 He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him. 18 After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf [the Romans] shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him. 19 Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.
“Seleucus Philopator succeeded his father Antiochus, [186 B.C.], and reigned twelve years, but did nothing memorable, being sluggish, and intent upon raising money for the Romans to whom he was tributary. He was slain by Heliodorus, whom he had sent to rob the Temple of Jerusalem. Daniel thus describes his reign.”
Daniel 11:20 Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle.
“A little before the death of Philopator, his son Demetrius was sent hostage to Rome, in the place of Antiochus Epiphanes, the brother of Philopator; and Antiochus was at Athens in his way home from Rome, when Philopator died: whereupon Heliodorus the treasurer of the kingdom, stept into the throne. But Antiochus so managed his affairs, that the Romans kept Demetrius at Rome; and their ally the King of Pergamus expelled Heliodorus, and placed Antiochus in the throne, while Demetrius the right heir remained an hostage at Rome.”
“Antiochus being thus made King by the friendship of the King of Pergamus reigned powerfully over Syria and the neighbouring nations: but carried himself much below his dignity, stealing privately out of his palace, rambling up and down the city in disguise with one or two of his companions; conversing and drinking with people of the lowest rank, foreigners and strangers; frequenting the meetings of dissolute persons to feast and revel; clothing himself like the Roman candidates and officers, acting their parts like a mimick, and in publick festivals jesting and dancing with servants and light people, exposing himself by all manner of ridiculous gestures.”
“This conduct made some take him for a madman, and call him Antiochus Επιμενης. In the first year of his reign he deposed Onias the high-Priest, and sold the high-Priesthood to Jason the younger brother of Onias: for Jason had promised to give him 440 talents of silver for that office, and 15 more for a licence to erect a place of exercise for the training up of youth in the fashions of the heathen; which licence was granted by the King, and put in execution by Jason.”
“Then the King sending one Apollonius into Egypt to the coronation of Ptolemy Philometor, the young son of Philometor and Cleopatra, and knowing Philometor not to be well affected to his affairs in Phoenicia, provided for his own safety in those parts; and for that end came to Joppa and Jerusalem, where he was honourably received; from thence he went in like manner with his little army to the cities of Phoenicia, to establish himself against Egypt, by courting the people, and distributing extraordinary favours amongst them. All which is thus represented by Daniel.”
Daniel 11:21-28 And in his [Philometor’s] estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they [the Syrians who set up Heliodorus] shall not give the honor of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries [made principally to the King of Pergamus]. 22 And with the arms [which in favour of Heliodorus oppose him] of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also [Onias the high-Priest] the prince of the covenant. 23 And after the league made with him [the King of Egypt, by sending Apollonius to his coronation] he shall work deceitfully [against the King of Egypt]: for he shall come up, and shall become strong [in Phoenicia] with a small people. 24 He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province [of Phoenicia]; and [to ingratiate himself with the Jews of Phoenicia and Egypt, and with their friends] he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers’ fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches [exacted from other places]: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds [of Egypt], even for a time. 25 And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him. 26 Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain. 27 And both these kings’ hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed. 28 Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land.
This prophecy was given to Daniel about 360 years before these events, which happened around 174 B.C..
The reason I have reproduced a lot of what Isaac Newton wrote about the history here between the Grecian and Roman Empires in and around the Holy Land is because these verses, Daniel 11:21-28, are taught under the futurist interpretation as in some way applying to the AntiChrist, who is supposed to arise in the future, ruling his worldwide kingdom from Jerusalem.
This sort of interpretation I blindly accepted for decades. But those who offer that futurist interpretation do not offer any explanation for the preceding verses Daniel 11:5-20. Quite clearly Daniel 11:2-4 applies to the nation states formed from the fragmentation of the kingdom of Greece fragmented. The detail that follows begs to be taken as contiguous history from that time, instead of jumping thousands of years ahead to some future period. So why shouldn’t what follows also apply as a connected series of historical events?
The invasion and tyranny of the Romans
In the following verses the history is extended to include fighting among the Greeks then the fall of Greece as the Romans moved into the Holy Land and took it over.
“The Egyptians of Alexandria seeing Philometor first educated in luxury by the Eunuch Eulæus, and now in the hands of Antiochus, gave the kingdom to Euergetes, the younger brother of Philometor. Whereupon Antiochus pretending to restore Philometor, made war upon Euergetes; beat him at sea, and besieged him and his sister Cleopatra in Alexandria: while the besieged Princes sent to Rome to implore the assistance of the Senate. Antiochus finding himself unable to take the city that year, returned into Syria, leaving Philometor at Memphis to govern Egypt in his absence.”
“But Philometor made friendship with his brother that winter; and Antiochus, returning the next spring [167 B.C], to besiege both the brothers in Alexandria, was met in the way by the Roman Ambassadors, Popilius Læna, C. Decimius, and C. Hostilius: he offered them his hand to kiss, but Popilius delivering to him the tables wherein the message of the Senate was written, bad him read those first. When he had read them, he replied he would consider with his friends what was fit to be done; but Popilius drawing a circle about him, bad him answer before he went out of it: Antiochus, astonished at this blunt and unusual imperiousness, made answer he would do what the Romans demanded; and then Popilius gave the King his hand to kiss, and he returned out of Egypt.”
“The same year, [167 B.C.], his captains by his order spoiled and slaughtered the Jews, profaned the Temple, set up the worship of the heathen Gods in all Judea, and began to persecute and make war upon those who would not worship them: which actions are thus described by Daniel.”
Daniel 11:29,30 At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter. 30 For the ships of Chittim shall come [with an embassy from Rome] against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant.
“In the same year that Antiochus by the command of the Romans retired out of Egypt, and set up the worship of the Greeks in Judea; the Romans conquered the kingdom of Macedon, the fundamental kingdom of the Empire of the Greeks, and reduced it into a Roman Province; and thereby began to put an end to the reign of Daniel’s third Beast. This is thus exprest by Daniel.”
Daniel 11:31 And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that makes desolate.
“And after him Arms, that is the Romans, shall stand up. … Arms are every where in this Prophecy of Daniel put for the military power of a kingdom: and they stand up when they conquer and grow powerful.”
“Hitherto Daniel described the actions of the Kings of the North and South; but upon the conquest of Macedon by the Romans, he left off describing the actions of the Greeks, and began to describe those of the Romans in Greece. They conquered Macedon, Illyricum and Epirus, in the year of [167 B.C.]. 35 years after, by the last will and testament of Attalus the last King of Pergamus, they inherited that rich and flourishing kingdom, that is, all Asia westward of mount Taurus; 69 years after they conquered the kingdom of Syria, and reduced it into a Province, and 34 years after they did the like to Egypt.”
Daniel 11:31 And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that makes desolate.
“By all these steps the Roman Arms stood up over the Greeks: and after 95 years more, by making war upon the Jews, they polluted the sanctuary of strength, and took away the daily sacrifice, and then placed the abomination of desolation. For this abomination was placed after the days of Christ, Matthew 24:15. In the 16th year of the Emperor Adrian, 132 [A.D.], they placed this abomination by building a Temple to Jupiter Capitolinus, where the Temple of God in Jerusalem had stood. Thereupon the Jews under the conduct of Barchochab rose up in arms against the Romans, and in the war had 50 cities demolished, 985 of their best towns destroyed, and 580,000 men slain by the sword; and in the end of the war, 136 [A.D.], were banished Judea upon pain of death, and thenceforward the land remained desolate of its old inhabitants.“
“In the beginning of the Jewish war in Nero’s reign, the Apostles fled out of Judea with their flocks; some beyond Jordan to Pella and other places, some into Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia minor, and elsewhere. Peter and John came into Asia, and Peter went thence by Corinth to Rome; but John staying in Asia, was banished by the Romans into Patmos, as the head of a party of the Jews, whose nation was in war with the Romans. By this dispersion of the Christian Jews, the Christian religion, which was already propagated westward as far as Rome, spred fast into all the Roman Empire, and suffered many persecutions under it till the days of Constantine the great and his sons: all which is thus described by Daniel.”
Daniel 11:32-35 And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits. 33 And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days. 34 Now when they shall fall, they shall be helped with a little help: but many shall cling to them with flatteries. 35 And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed.
These verses have been portrayed by the futurist interpretation as Endtime witnesses who battle against the AntiChrist. But they describe the persecutions of the Early Church. It was certainly antichrists that persecuted the early Christians, and that has continued through the centuries since. Daniel 11:35 leaves the time period open—until the end. So this persecution of the true Church continues until Christ’s return.
“Hitherto the Roman Empire continued entire; and under this dominion, the little horn of the He-Goat continued mighty, but not by his own power. But now, by the building of Constantinople, and endowing it with a Senate and other like privileges with Rome; and by the division of the Roman Empire into the two Empires of the Greeks and Latins, headed by those two cities; a new scene of things commences, in which (Daniel 11:36) a King, the Empire of the Greeks, doth according to his will, and, by setting his own laws above the laws of God, exalts and magnifies himself above every God, and speaks marvellous things against the God of Gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished.”
Daniel 11:36,37 And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done. 37 Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.
Newton now describes a new Emperor who arises out of the division of the Roman Empire. This king rises to power initially out of the Greek empire (Eastern Empire) of the old Roman Empire (after Constantine the Great made it a holy Roman empire). Celibacy for Monks and Nuns was introduced. Eventually only Monks could hold ecclesiastical office and become Bishops. A Bishop was the leader of the Church in a city. Superstitious pagan practices were subsumed from the Romans as by this time everyone had to be a Christian by law.
Daniel 11:38,39 But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things. 39 Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.
“And in his seat he shall honour Mahuzzims, that is, strong guardians, the souls of the dead; even with a God whom his fathers knew not shall he honour them, in their Temples, with gold and silver, and with precious stones and valuable things. All which relates to the overspreading of the Greek Empire with Monks and Nuns, who placed holiness in abstinence from marriage; and to the invocation of saints and veneration of their reliques, and such like superstitions, which these men introduced in the fourth and fifth centuries.”
Daniel 11:40-43 And at the time of the end shall the king of the south [or the Empire of the Saracens5] push at him: and the king of the north [or Empire of the Turks] shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over. 41 He shall enter also into the glorious land [Israel], and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.6 42 He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape. 43 But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.
“All these nations compose the Empire of the Turks, and therefore this Empire is here to be understood by the King of the North. They compose also the body of the He-Goat; and therefore the Goat still reigns in his last horn, but not by his own power.”
Through the power of the Greek division of the old Roman Empire the new ruler continues the Greek reign over the kingdoms that were once controlled by the united kingdom of Greece. But it is a new power. This new power in the region had absolute power and builds his churches through these lands including the Holy Land, even replacing the Roman Temple on the holy Mount with his own. In 325 A.D. Constantine built an octagon church on the site. See Daniel 9 study.
Daniel 11:44,45 But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away [exterminate] many. 45 And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.
The pagan superstitions of this empire eventually were subsumed by the Latin division (Western Empire) of the holy Roman Empire under the despotic power of the Bishop of Rome (who controlled all other Bishops in the Empire). The power over the world became dominant in the Latin Holy Roman Empire, under the Papacy but the prophecy here says that ‘he shall come to his end and none shall help.’
References and Notes
- Cyrus’ third year would have been ca. 533 B.C. and Daniel would have been nearly 90 years old. The 70 years of captivity would soon be coming to an end.
- A theophany is an explicit appearance of God to a person.
- First year of Darius the Mede, Viceroy of Babylon was 538 B.C.
- Isaac Newton, Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John, Chapter XII.
- Saracens were Ishmaelite descendents amongst the Arabs.
- The countries of Edom, Moab and Ammon are now parts of Jordan.